CB1 receptors are found throughout the central nervous system and some peripheral tissues. CB2 receptors are mainly found in peripheral tissues and immune cells. Are cannabinoid receptors found in organs involved with the production of sex hormones, too?
Yes, cannabinoid receptors have been found on the adrenals, (a source of androgens), and the ovaries, (a source of estrogen, progesterone, and androgens). In addition, receptors are present on oocytes and the uterus.
Some people consume cannabinoids via “dabbing.” Describe this method of consumption.
Basically, with dabbing, a cannabis concentrate is applied to a hot platform and the cannabinoids are volatilized. The vapor then passes through a water-pipe device and is inhaled by the consumer. The hot platform (commonly called “the nail”) is usually constructed from quartz, ceramic or titanium. This nail is heated, often with a blow torch, and after the nail is hot, a small amount of cannabis concentrate is applied. Vaporization of the cannabinoids is immediate. Inhalation by the consumer during application of the cannabis concentrate draws the vapors from around the nail into the water pipe.
Raber, J. C., Elzinga, S., & Kaplan, C. (2015). Understanding dabs: contamination concerns of cannabis concentrates and cannabinoid transfer during the act of dabbing. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 40(6), 797–803. https://doi.org/10.2131/jts.40.797
Other than butane, what are some of the chemical solvents used to create cannabis concentrates? Other than using solvents to create cannabis concentrates, what other methods to produce cannabis concentrates can be used?
Hexane, isopentane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, and propane are used to make cannabis concentrates. In addition to using solvents, concentrates can also be manufactured via a dry method, a water-based method or a CO2 based method.
Kelly A. Sagar, Ashley M. Lambros, Mary Kathryn Dahlgren, Rosemary T. Smith, Staci A. Gruber, Made from concentrate? A national web survey assessing dab use in the United States, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 190, 2018, Pages 133-142,ISSN 0376-8716, https://doi.org/10.2131/jts.40.797″
Do all medical marijuana legal states allow the sale of products manufactured through butane extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction?
Supercritical CO2 extraction does not leave residual hydrocarbons, while butane extraction does. As a result, some states will allow the sale of supercritical CO2 extraction products, but not allow the sale of butane extracts.
In addition to butane extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction is another process used to manufacture cannabis extracts. What is the major difference in the end products of the two processes?
Supercritical CO2 extraction does not leave any trace of hydrocarbon solvents in the end product, while butane extraction does. The viscosity of the supercritical CO2 products is less than the viscosity of the butane extraction products. As a result of a lower viscosity, supercritical CO2 extraction process products can be used in vaporizer pens on its own without cutting agents. While products derived from a butane extraction are used in dabbing, products derived from supercritical CO2 extraction are not.
Some patients may use shatter, budder, crumble, pull-and-snap, and/or wax. Are all of these products exactly the same?
All of these products are cannabis extracts, but it is the specific manufacturing/ processing of the hash oil cannabis products that will determine the consistency of the product. Depending upon the consistency and other physical characteristics, the product will be called shatter, budder, crumble, pull-and-snap or wax.
Does short term treatment with THC rich cannabis induce clinical remission and improve quality of life in patients with mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis?
Yes, according to a recent study. However, these beneficial clinical effects were NOT associated with significant anti-inflammatory improvement in the Mayo endoscopic score or laboratory markers for inflammation. These results were derived from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, – 32 patients received either cigarettes containing 0.5 g of dried cannabis flowers with 80mg THC or placebo cigarettes for 8 weeks. Parameters of disease including Lichtiger disease activity index, C reactive protein (CRP), calprotectin, Mayo endoscopic score and quality of life (QOL) were assessed before, during and after treatment.
Cannabis is associated with clinical but not endoscopic remission in ulcerative colitis: A randomized controlled trial Timna Naftali , Lihi Bar-Lev Schleider, Fabiana Scklerovsky Benjaminov, Fred Meir Konikoff, Shelly Tartakover Matalon, Yehuda Ringel Published: February 11, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246871
In some legal states, edibles, such as candies, baked goods, beverages and condiments (butter and oils) containing THC may be sold. Is 2.5mg of THC in an edible a low dose or high dose of THC to be consumed orally?
The dosing of THC always needs to be adjusted on an individual basis. For reference, 2.5 mg is the lowest dose of dronabinol, a synthetic THC that is FDA-approved.
When speaking with their clinicians, patients may use the terms “dabs”, “wax”, or “butane honey oil” – what do these terms mean?
Dabs, wax and butane honey oil are all highly concentrated cannabis extracts of THC. These THC products are often smoked or vaporized. Because these THC products are quite highly concentrated, the consumption of only a very small amount may produce a significant effect.
Special Report | February 2018 Contemporary Routes of Cannabis Consumption: A Primer for Clinicians Jeramy Peters, DO; Joseph Chien, DO