Can drugs be detected in the meconium of a newborn?
Yes. Toxicology screens can be performed on the meconium and can possibly help healthcare providers determine which drugs a parturient had used. A toxicology screen of the newborn’s urine can also be performed and possibly provide information.
Endocannabinoids (also called endogenous cannabinoids) are endogenous agonists of the receptors to which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) also binds. Two of the most well-studied endocannabinoids are derivatives of arachidonic acid: N-arachidonoylethanolamine (also called anandamide or AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG).
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a homeostatic regulatory system that influences multiple physiological processes, including the modulation of pain, seizure threshold, appetite, mood and other processes. The ECS may also play a role in regulation of the immune system, tumor surveillance, bone physiology, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and intraocular pressure. This system was named the endocannabinoid system because it is an endogenous system whose components interact with or resemble a compound derived from the cannabis plant called THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol).
The CB1 receptor is a G protein receptor that serves as a target for both endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids (plant derived cannabinoids). The CB1 receptor is very highly expressed throughout the brain. In humans, the CB1 receptor is 10 times more prevalent in the central nervous system as compared to the Mu opioid receptor. CB1 receptors are also found in non-neural tissue, including adipose, liver, pancreas, skeletal muscle and immune cells. CB1 receptors are the primary psychoactive cannabinoid receptors.
How long after an opioid is consumed can it be detected in the urine? Which type of test must be used, immunoassay or chromatography/mass spectrometry?
Codeine, Morphine and semisynthetic opioids (hydrocodone, hydromorphone) can all be detected on the urine immunoassay test 1-3 days after use. In 2011, Snyder et al. evaluated a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (HEIA) and determined that it is capable of rapidly detecting fentanyl in the urine. (This new HEIA had a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 99% and accuracy of 99%.) Synthetic opioids (fentanyl, meperidine and propoxyphene) can be detected on a chromatography/mass spectrometry test 1-3 days after use.