THC and CBD are the most commonly occurring cannabinoids in cannabis. What distinguishes them structurally?
THC and CBD are structural isomers. They are both 21 carbon- containing phytocannabinoids and share an identical chemical formula, C21H30O2. However, the way that the atoms are arranged in the two molecules is different. There is an oxygen-containing closed ring in THC that is open in CBD. Dissolved in a solution, through a process known as isomerization involving heat and acid, the two compounds can be interconverted chemically.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants that includes multiple subspecies. One species is Cannabis sativa. Scientists have identified over 400 chemical compounds produced by the cannabis plant. More than 65 of these compounds are unique to the cannabis plant, and they are called cannabinoids (or phytocannabinoids). Examples of phytocannabinoids include delta -9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG).
Other than withdrawal symptoms, what other side effects are associated with naloxone administration?
Nausea, vomiting, sweating, hypotension, hypertension, atrial tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, cardiac arrest, seizures and pulmonary edema have all been reported after administration of naloxone.
Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist. It is capable of reversing the respiratory depression, hypotension and sedation seen in opioid overdoses, however, it cannot reverse the respiratory depression, hypotension or sedation caused by an overdose of non-opioid drugs. Of note, the respiratory depression caused by a partial opioid agonist or a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist may not be completely reversed by naloxone.|Naloxone is also approved for adjunct use in the treatment of septic shock to increase blood pressure.
Yes. Morphine can be excreted in breast milk. In August 2006, Koren et al. reported a case of a healthy 13-day-old breastfed baby who died secondary to a morphine overdose. The mother was taking less than the usual dose of codeine typically prescribed for episiotomy pain. Laboratory tests showed high serum levels of morphine in the baby. Genetic testing was performed on the mother and the results indicated that the mother was an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine.
Can drugs be detected in the meconium of a newborn?
Yes. Toxicology screens can be performed on the meconium and can possibly help healthcare providers determine which drugs a parturient had used. A toxicology screen of the newborn’s urine can also be performed and possibly provide information.
Endocannabinoids (also called endogenous cannabinoids) are endogenous agonists of the receptors to which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) also binds. Two of the most well-studied endocannabinoids are derivatives of arachidonic acid: N-arachidonoylethanolamine (also called anandamide or AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG).
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a homeostatic regulatory system that influences multiple physiological processes, including the modulation of pain, seizure threshold, appetite, mood and other processes. The ECS may also play a role in regulation of the immune system, tumor surveillance, bone physiology, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and intraocular pressure. This system was named the endocannabinoid system because it is an endogenous system whose components interact with or resemble a compound derived from the cannabis plant called THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol).